Since the end of the civil wars in Central America in the 1990s there has been considerable fear of violent street gangs, or maras. The countries in the region have implemented various anti-gang policies and approaches, with mixed results.
After decades of civil war and political repression, peace agreements were signed in Central America in the 1990s. These agreements triggered the democratization processes in the region. But while political violence has decreased, criminal and social violence have risen. Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador are now among the most violent countries in the world. It is not only street gangs that cause the violence in these countries. The expansion of the drugs trade and increase in kidnappings, theft and domestic abuse are also important causes. Yet street gangs attract the most media attention and are often seen as the principal cause of insecurity in the region.
Street gangs have terrorized the populations of Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala since the mid-1990s. Local gangs that emerged from deprived neighbourhoods have joined one of the two transnational gangs that originated in the US and which are sworn enemies of each other: the Mara Salvatrucha (MS) and Barrio 18 (the Eighteen Street Gang). The local gangs have converted themselves into ‘cliques’ and obey their codes and rules of larger gangs. But this did not occur in Nicaragua, even though it also experienced a civil war and suffers from extreme poverty. Nicaragua has its own street gangs, but they are still strongly linked to local neighbourhoods and are proportionately less violent than their counterparts in neighbouring countries.
Transnational street gangs or maras
Emigration and deportation are important factors in the rise of transnational gangs. During the political repression and civil wars of the 1980s, there was substantial migration to the US. In contrast to the Nicaraguans, who mainly migrated to Costa Rica where there was virtually no problem with street gangs, many Salvadorans, Hondurans and Guatemalans sought safety and employment in the US. Large groups of migrants ended up in the poor neighbourhoods of Los Angeles, a city that already had a large Latino community and a long-established gang tradition. The children of these migrants were often harassed at school and on the street by competing youth gangs of different ethnic backgrounds. The Eighteen Street Gang welcomed young immigrants from Central America who were struggling to fit in with their peers. For many of these young people membership in the gang offered both an identity and safety; it combined the promise of friendship, solidarity and respect with protection against harassment and intimidation by other gangs. However, the price of membership was that they had to defend to the death the name and honour of the gang, in particular from insults, humiliation and assaults from their rivals.
In the early 1990s, the US authorities began deporting large numbers of arrested or convicted youngsters – particularly those suspected of being gang members – to their countries of origin. From that point, Central America’s gang problem worsened badly. The style and attitude of the big-city gangs from the US made a huge impression on young people from deprived neighbourhoods in Central America. The new way of dressing, moving, speaking and communicating through hand gestures associated with gangs were enormously attractive, as was the promise of close mutual connection and solidarity. This new gang culture led to extreme hostility toward members of rival gangs. Confrontations between gangs intensified rapidly to life and death struggles.
Initially, it was mainly gang members who had been deported from the US who formed new cliques of the two large gangs – Mara Salvatrucha and Eighteen Street Gang – in the towns and cities of Central America. But in the years that followed many of the existing neighbourhood gangs became cliques of the two large gangs. Over time, local youths began to assume leading roles in the cliques. As a result, identification with the local neighbourhood became less important and members began to identify primarily with their gang and its associated symbols.
Despite the accusations against street gangs made by police and politicians, the exact extent to which the maras have increased insecurity and crime is unclear. For example, statistics published by the National Civil Police of El Salvador do not confirm the claim made by President Saca that 60% of crime in his country is committed by gang members. However, gang members made up for between 7.1% and 24.9% of people arrested for murder between 2003 and 2006; gang member arrests for extortion increased from 0% in 2003 to 14.6% in 2006. Such statistics are not yet available in Honduras and Guatemala.
There are different ways to assess the causes of street gang formation. A common approach in Central America is the ‘epidemiological model’, which was developed by the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO/OPS). This model looks at the factors that can lead to violence and membership of street gangs, and the factors that can prevent it. José Miguel Cruz, a researcher of the Central American University [UCA] at San Salvador, classified 27 risk factors and divided them into 10 categories. Major categories included social exclusion, a culture of violence, rapid urban growth, migration, disorganization at neighbourhood level, drugs, family problems, presence of gang members and the existence of long-term violent practices, such as cycles of revenge.
These factors come to life in the approach adopted in 2004 by Caroline O. N. Moser of the University of Manchester, UK, and Cathy McIlwaine of the University of London. Moser and McIlwaine focus on the perspective of the people living in deprived areas. Family problems and abuse drive young people onto the streets. There, pressure from friends to participate in organized violence with promises of alternative income, leadership and power make street gangs an attractive option. Juan José Sosa and José Luis Rocha of the Central American University at Managua emphasize how different factors come together in a process of street socialization of young people from the neighbourhood. For many youngsters the street represents a temporary escape from everyday problems within the family (such as child abuse), social exclusion and poverty (such as overcrowded homes, limited resources and insufficient food). They are pressured by peers to learn to display courage and show no fear, to establish a reputation for themselves and to defend it, and above all to appreciate the effectiveness of violence and threats to achieve their aims. These values – ‘the code of the street’ – are learned and practiced on the streets. The process has a highly polarizing influence on youth gangs, because the group rewards the ability to maintain a position in relation to peers and gangs from other neighbourhoods.
In their analysis of gang control programmes, Malcolm Klein of the University of Southern California and Cheryl Maxson of the University of California classify official anti-gang programmes as political, ideological or bureaucratic according to the way they develop. Such programmes or policy can be described as political if they are initiated within the framework of a political or electoral agenda. Ideological programmes are largely generated by the law enforcement agencies and strongly reflect the value system of the police. Anti-gang policy classified as ‘bureaucratic’ is developed by local government or ministries, and is designed to match the capacity and experience of the institutions that have to implement it.
There is a remarkable difference in anti-gang policies across the various countries of Central America. In 2002 El Salvador and Honduras declared the gangs to be a national security problem and developed a strict public safety policy. This policy was largely based on a political agenda, as evidenced by the names of the programmes alone: Operación Liberdad (Operation Freedom) and Plan Super Mano Dura (Super Iron Fist Plan). The programmes involved the deployment of the military and were accompanied by rapidly drafted and introduced ‘anti-mara’ legislation, which criminalized membership of a street gang such as Mara Salvatrucha or Eighteen Street Gang. Despite the intense media coverage, observers rapidly gained the impression that this had ‘more face than substance’. Guatemala hesitantly followed the example set by its neighbours with its Plan Escoba (Broom Plan), but on a smaller scale and without banning membership of gangs.
The approaches in Guatemala and Nicaragua are more ideological, although there are considerable differences in approach to dealing with gang violence. In Guatemala the police conduct patrols with the help of soldiers and hunt down gang members. In Nicaragua the emphasis is on prevention: the police try to establish a relationship with the local community in the neighbourhoods concerned and to organize them into committees for social crime prevention under the banner of safety and crime prevention. But the burden of organizing such prevention falls primarily on the police, who receive relatively little help from other government agencies or NGOs, and sometimes little support from residents.
The repressive policy pursued in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala seems to be largely counter-productive. During police operations, which mostly take place in deprived neighbourhoods, suspected gang members are arrested and locked up. Although many are immediately released by the courts, the result is that the prisons are overflowing. The lack of supervision in custodial institutions has helped Mara Salvatrucha and Eighteen Street Gang become better organized in jail; they regard prisons as ‘universities’ for their members. Despite the increased number of imprisoned gang members, homicide rates have risen and the number of people who fall victim to crime has remained generally the same. Meanwhile the perception of insecurity among broad sections of the population has remained the same or has declined only slightly. Hence, the question remains: how much of this violence are street gangs responsible for?
Nicaragua’s national police focus on the early identification of gang formation and activities and on demobilizing gangs. Youngsters and their families are called to account for their violent and criminal behaviour. Police attempt to weaken the gangs’ position by threatening prosecution of the leaders and offering training and work experience to members who quit the gang. If the members are open to talking to police and the local community, the police attempt to reach peace agreements between neighbouring gangs and to organize an official ceremony at which the gangs hand in their weapons in exchange for study grants. The police are by no means always successful in dismantling the gangs, but Nicaragua is managing to prevent the escalation of the problem. Furthermore, the transnational gangs such as the Mara Salvatrucha and Eighteen Street Gang have not managed to establish cliques in the country. Nevertheless, Nicaragua has been confronted with the same trends as its neighbours: violence in terms of homicide figures has increased in recent years; the proportion of the population that has become the victim of crime has remained the same and perceptions of insecurity have also decreased.
80% de delitos son cometidos por pandillas. (2003, 13 de agosto). La Tribuna, Reportaje, p.10.
AmericasBarometer by LAPOP (2008a). Cultura política de la democracia en El Salvador, 2008. El impacto de la gobernabilidad. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/HOME
AmericasBarometer by LAPOP (2008b). Cultura política de la democracia en Honduras, 2008. El impacto de la gobernabilidad. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/HOME
AmericasBarometer by LAPOP (2008c). Cultura política de la democracia en Guatemala, 2008. El impacto de la gobernabilidad. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from
AmericasBarometer by LAPOP (2008d). Cultura política de la democracia en Nicaragua, 2008. El impacto de la gobernabilidad. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/HOME
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Andino Mencía, T. (2005). El fracaso de la estrategia antimaras en Honduras. Revista centroamericana justicia penal y sociedad, 22: 85-157.
Autoridades temen ataque de pandillas. (2003, 14 de agosto). La Tribuna, Nacionales, p. 11.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences and control. New York: McGraw Hill.
Castro, M. & Carranza, M. (2001). Las maras en Honduras. En ERIC, IDESO, IDIES, & IUDOP (Eds.), Maras y pandillas en Centroamérica: Volumen 1 (pp. 219-332). Managua: UCA Publicaciones.
Cordero Ardila, E., H. Gurdián Alfaro y C. E. López Hurtado (2006), Alcanzando un sueño: modelo de prevención social de la policía. Managua, Criptos.
Cruz, J. M. (2005). Los factores asociados a las pandillas juveniles en Centroamérica. Estudios Centroamericanos, 685-686, 1155-1182.
Cruz, J. M., & Portillo, N. (1998). Solidaridad y violencia en las pandillas del gran San Salvador: Más allá de la vida loca. San Salvador: UCA Editores.
Davis, M. (1992). City of Quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. New York: Vintage Books.
DeCesare, D. (1998). The Children of War. NACLA Report on the Americas, 32, (1), 21-32.
Dunn, W. (2007). The gangs of Los Angeles. New York: iUniverse.
En menos de un mes 15 mujeres asesinadas. (2004, 25 de enero). Siglo XXI, Seguridad.
Entrevista con el presidente Antonio Saca. (2005, 30 de mayo) El Faro.net. Retrieved May 26, 2007, from
Fundación de Estudios para la Aplicación del Derecho (FESPAD). (2004a). Informe Anual sobre Justicia Penal Juvenil El Salvador 2003. El Salvador, San Salvador: FESPAD Ediciones.
Fundación de Estudios para la Aplicación del Derecho (FESPAD). (2004b). Informe Anual sobre Justicia Penal Juvenil El Salvador 2004. El Salvador, San Salvador: FESPAD Ediciones.
Goldstein, A. P. (1991). Delinquent gangs. A psychological perspective. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Hayden, T. (2004). Street wars: Gangs and the future of violence. New York: The New Press.
Klein, M. W. (1995). The American street gang. Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klein, M. W., & Maxson, C. L. (2006). Street gang patterns and policies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Méndez Villaseñor, C. (2003a, 8 de octubre). Pandillas, Marcas de terror y muerte. Prensa Libre, pp. 2, 3.
Molina Vaquerano, F. (2007a). Anuario estadístico “Defunciones por homicidios en El Salvador” Período enero-diciembre 2005. San Salvador, El Salvador: Instituto Medicina Legal “Dr. Roberto Masferrer”, Corte Suprema de Justicia.
Molina Vaquerano, F. (2007b). Anuario estadístico “Defunciones por homicidios en El Salvador” Período enero-diciembre 2006. San Salvador, El Salvador: Instituto Medicina Legal “Dr. Roberto Masferrer”, Corte Suprema de Justicia.
Moore, J. (1990). Gangs, drugs, and violence. En M. De La Rosa, E. Y. Lambert & B. Gropper (Eds.), Drugs and Violence: Causes, Correlates, and Consequences. NIDA Research Monograph 103 (pp. 160-176). Rockville (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Moser, C. O. N., & McIlwaine, C. (2004). Encounters with violence in Latin America. Urban poor perceptions from Colombia and Guatemala. New York: Routledge.
Observatorio de la Violencia. (2007). Mortalidad y otros. Boletín Enero-Diciembre 2006. Tegucigalpa: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. (Edición no. 5, febrero 2007).
OPS (1997). Taller sobre la Violencia de los Adolescentes y las Pandillas (“Maras”) Juveniles. Celebrada en San Salvador, El Salvador, los días 7 a 9 de mayo de 1997. Washington: author.
Rodríguez Barrillas, A. y Pérez Castillo, G. (2005). “Transparentando el Plan Escoba, análisis de la estrategia policial en relación con las pandillas juveniles en Guatemala”, Revista Centroamericana Justicia Penal y Sociedad, 22, 11-84.
Sampson, R. J. (2006). How does community context matter? Social mechanisms and the explanation of crime rates. En P-O. H. Wilkström & R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The Explanation of Crime: Context, Mechanisms and Development (pp.31-60). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-desorganization theory. The American Journal of Sociology, 94(4), 774-802.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918-924.
Santacruz Giralt, M. L., & Concha Eastman, A. (2001). Barrio adentro: la solidaridad violenta de las pandillas. San Salvador: IUDOP.
Santacruz Giralt & Portillo Peña (1999). Agresores y agredidos. Factores de riesgo de la violencia juvenil en las escuelas. San Salvador, El Salvador, IUDOP (UCA).
Savenije, W. (2004). La Mara Salvatrucha y el Barrio 18 St. Fenómenos sociales transnacionales, respuestas represivas nacionales. Foreign Affairs en Español 4(2), 38-46.
Savenije, W. (2007). Las pandillas trasnacionales o 'maras': violencia urbana en Centroamerica. Foro Internacional XLVII(2), 637-659.
Savenije, W. (2009). Maras y barras. Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica. San Salvador: FLACSO El Salvador (in press).
Smutt, M., & Miranda, L. (1998). El fenómeno de las pandillas en El Salvador. San Salvador: UNICEF, FLACSO - Programa El Salvador.
Sosa Meléndez, J. J., & Rocha, J. L. (2001). Las pandillas en Nicaragua. En ERIC, IDESO, IDIES, & IUDOP (Eds.), Maras y pandillas en Centroamérica: Volumen 1 (pp. 335-430). Managua: UCA Publicaciones.
Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs. Street life and identity in southern California. Austin: Texas University Press.
Vigil, J. D. (1998). From indians to chicanos. The dynamics of mexican-american culture. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press.
Vigil, J. D. (2002). A rainbow of gangs. Street cultures in the mega-city. Austin: Texas University Press.
Waiselfisz, J. J. (2008). Mapa de la violencia: los jóvenes de América Latina 2008. Brasília DF, Brazil: RILTLA.
Widom, C.S (1989), ‘The cycle of violence’, Science, 244, 160-166.
Photo credit main picture: HH / Moises Saman
Existing figure on violence in Central America are confusing. Different organisations produce their own figures, which vary considerably. A study carried out by the Latin American Technological Information Network (RITLA) attributes the highest homicide rate in the world to El Salvador, with 48.8 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants, followed by Colombia (43.8 in 2005). Guatemala comes in fourth place (28.5 in 2004). RITLA’s list puts Nicaragua in thirteenth place with a homicide rate of 10.4 in 2005 (Waiselfisz, 2008). Based on the numbers of the Observatorio de la Violencia at the National University of Honduras (UNAH), we can estimate that Honduras had 35.1 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in 2005, this estimation increases to 42.9 in 2006 (Observatorio de la Violencia, 2007). The official figures of the Salvadoran Institute of Forensic Medicine (Instituto Medicina Legal) are even higher than those of RITLA: based on these figures the estimate is 55.5 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in 2005 and 56.2 in 2006 (Molina Vaquerano, 2007a, 2007b) (The data on the population of El Salvador and Honduras are approximations and projections made by CELADE/CEPAL, updated in July 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from http://www.eclac.cl/celade/proyecciones/basedatos_BD.htm).
A police study carried out in Honduras revealed that a probable ‘80% of crimes reported to the police are committed by gang members’ (80% de delitos, 2003). The public security minister, Oscar Álvarez, feared that ‘the leaders of the maras may be uniting in order to undertake joint attacks on government officials’ (Autoridades temen ataque, 2003). President Antonio Saca of El Salvador claimed that ‘60% of crimes in this country are committed by gang members. Not just homicides, all crimes including homicide’ (Entrevista con el presidente, 2005). The Guatemalan police have maintained that 20% of the homicides in the country are committed by gang members (Méndez Villaseñor, 2003a), while the Homicide Unit of the Guatemalan National Police claims that ‘80% of homicides where the victim is a woman are linked to the maras’ (En menos de un mes, 2004). The problem with all these claims is that they are rarely backed up with reliable statistics and some even contradict the few statistical data available.
Little is known about the relationships and hierarchy between the cliques and how they manifest themselves at different levels (urban, national and international). They probably form a kind of network within which the cliques have a degree of autonomy, but stand in a hierarchical relationship to each other. This hierarchy has been further reinforced in recent years because many gang leaders were held in the same prisons.
Cruz 2005; Savenije 2007.
Cruz 2005; Savenije 2007.
Hayden, 2004; Vigil, 1998.
Hayden, 2004; De Cesare, 1998.
Smutt & Miranda, 1998.
Smutt & Miranda, 1998.
Cruz & Portillo, 1998.
Castro & Carranza, 2001; Smutt, M., & Miranda, 1998.
Hostility between the MS and Eighteen Street in Central America did not decline. On the contrary, it became more extreme. The diversity of street gangs in the US placed limits on the hostility between the Latino gangs, partly because when gang members ended up in prison they had to unite against the threat from gangs of different ethnic origins. In Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, however, many potential rivals were subsumed in the MS or Eighteen Street Gang networks, while others simply disappeared. The two gangs thus became increasingly polarized and violent toward each other.
Entrevista con el presidente, 2005.
Unidad de Operaciones y Estadísticas, Policía Nacional Civil de El Salvador.
OPS (1997).; Santacruz Giralt and Concha Eastman 2001; . Santacruz Giralt & Portillo Peña, 1999.
Moser& McIlwaine, 2004.
Sosa Meléndez & Rocha, 2001; Vigil, 1988; Vigil, 2002.
Klein & Maxson, 2006.
The name Plan Super Mano Dura was conceived in El Salvador during an election campaign after the Plan Mano Dura had not achieved the desired results and the new presidential candidate was in favour of an even ‘better’ repressive anti-gang policy.
Andino Mencía, 2005; FESPAD, 2004a; 2004b.
Rodríguez Barrillas & Pérez Castillo, 2005.
Comité de Prevención Social del Delito. See too Cordero Ardila, Gurdián Alfaro & López Hurtado, 2006.
Provisional results of a study by FLACSO El Salvador.
Andino Mencía, 2005.
According to the RITLA study, homicide figures in the two countries of the ‘Northern Triangle’ are not only high, they are showing a tendency to increase: between 2002 and 2005 the homicide rate in El Salvador rose from 30.8 to 48.8. In Guatemala the rate rose between 2002 and 2004 from 24.2 to 28.5 (Waiselfisz, 2008). The figures of the Observatorio de la Violencia indicate that also the homicide rate in Honduras has risen between 2005 and 2006 (Observatorio de la Violencia, 2007).
The proportion of the population that became the victim of crime remained stable, statistically speaking, in El Salvador between 2004 and 2008 (17.1 % in 2004; 15.6% in 2006, and 19% in 2008). The same applies to Honduras in this period (13.7% in 2004, 19.2% in 2006, and 13.7% in 2008); in Guatemala this figure rose in the period between 2004 (12.8%) and 2006 (19.2%), but remained stable, in statistical terms, from then until 2008 (17.1%) (AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2008a; 2008b; 2008c).
In El Salvador the perception of insecurity (measured on a scale from 0-100 where 0 = most secure and 100 = most insecure) declined between 2006 and 2008 (from 43.3 in 2004, to 48.1 in 2006 to 41.5 in 2008). In Honduras the perception of insecurity remained stable, in statistical terms, in this period (39.1 in 2006, 37.4 in 2006 and 41.7 in 2008); in Guatemala the perception of insecurity declined slightly in the same period (45.5 in 2004, 42.6 in 2006, to 39.6 in 2008) (Americas Barometer by LAPOP, 2008a; 2008b; 2008c).
See also footnote 2.
Cordero Ardila et al, 2006.
According to RITLA (Waiselfisz, 2008), the homicide rate in Nicaragua rose from 11.3 to 16.6 between 2002 and 2006 (primarily in the period 2002-2003: from 11.3 to 16.5). The proportion of the population that became the victim of crime remained stable, statistically speaking, in this period (15.2% in 2002, 16.0% in 2004 and 16.5% in 2008), while the perception of insecurity (measured on a scale from 0-100) between 2004 and 2008 declined from 45 in 2002 to 33.7 in 2008 (AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2008d).