Although African migration is no new phenomenon, migration from Africa to Europe has increased in recent years. What is driving these people to move to Europe right now? When answering this question it becomes clear that effective migration policies need to target development inside Africa, with a particular focus on the rule of law and decent employment opportunities.
This expert opinion is part of our living analysis on migration
While European policymakers are challenged to formulate unified migration policies, blind spots along the migration trails hamper our ability to understand the situation as it is.
When placing the data on African migration to Europe into historical and regional context, the idea of an abrupt en masse migration of Africans cannot be upheld. First, the idea of a lack of borders and an easy journey for Africans is flawed. Due to Israeli immigration policies, Yemen’s implosion plus repressive migration policies at the Moroccan border, migrants can only use the Central Mediterranean route. These people take long, dangerous and costly journeys where more often than not they end up being stranded in Algeria or Morocco.
Overview of recent African migration to Europe
African migration to Europe traditionally occurs across two routes: the Western Mediterranean route and the Central Mediterranean route. In 2014, the use of the Central Mediterranean route to Europe (from Libya or Egypt to Italy or Malta) sharply increased: from approximately 40,000 people in 2013 to 170,000 in 2014. In 2015 it is likely that this number will stay the same. Syrian refugees have the highest share in this growth, but African migrants also account for a large part. Graph 1 shows that Eritreans, Sub-Saharan Africans, Nigerians and Somali’s make up the majority of the African share.
Secondly, the idea of African migration as a new phenomenon is incorrect. The figures on African migration are not remarkably different from the past, except from the fact that migrants are now continuing to Europe. The increase in migration from Africa to Europe is relatively small in comparison to migration numbers between African countries. In West Africa for instance, regional migration is still seven times larger than migration to other parts of the world. Many African refugees reside in African countries (see Graph 2 below). As an example, most of the Somali refugees reside in neighbouring countries as Kenya, Ethiopia or Yemen. In fact, the amount of migrants as a piece of the total African population decreases.
Therefore, those claiming that Africans have discovered European luxuries and have all of a sudden started to relocate are essentially wrong.
From regional to international migration
In fact, African migrants are primarily driven by a lack of security and economic opportunities, influenced by scarcity of resources due to population growth and climate change. For instance, conflict and repression are important drivers for Eritreans, Nigerians and Somalians to move. The moment, destination and extent of migration depend on different factors however. Historically, African refugees moved within their own countries or to neighbouring countries, due the proximity and cultural linkages. The shift to large-distance migration patterns within or outside Africa we now see today have three different explanations.
Firstly, the rise of migration within Africa is partly the result of policies aimed at free movement, such as the ECOWAS in West Africa. In parallel to the economic development in these nations, many have moved to Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Nigeria in seeking work. Not all are able to find decent employment, due to a lack of rights (residences, employment rights) or a lack of jobs in general. Particularly the youth in Sub-Saharan Africa have fewer opportunities in terms of decent employment, which causes many to search elsewhere.
Secondly, the rising middle class in many African nations is providing more Africans with the money needed for a long distance journey. As outlined by Paul Collier, the propensity to migrate is highest for the economic middle class. In comparison to lower economic classes, they possess the means to migrate, but as opposed to higher economic classes they also still have the incentive to look for better opportunities elsewhere.
Finally, the possibility to migrate is increased by the professional organization of smuggling networks, particularly in Mali, Niger, Sudan and Libya. More information on this is provided in the slide below.
A comprehensive policy approach
What measures can be taken to regulate the influx of irregular migrants to Europe? When examining the routes that migrants take to Europe (see Figure 1 below), this question can be answered by discussing the role of two countries: Niger and Libya.
Niger is a major hub in terms of human trafficking, particularly because the costs of travelling to Libya are relatively low compared to the route through Algeria. In the absence of a strong democratic state, nomadic tribes have been able to expand their influence and organize human trafficking along the Sahara desert.
In the meantime, Libya has developed as the major transit country in Africa where migrants are transferred to boats heading across the Mediterranean Sea. The Libyan Civil War has led to a lack of enforcement of border posts and coastline guards, as well as an increased belief amongst migrants that the doors to Europe are open.
These two country examples show that limiting migration to Europe requires migration policy inside Africa, which in turn requires a comprehensive approach. At the absence of rule of law, the smuggling industry continues to provide and maintains the idea that a new home awaits in prosperous Europe. General investments in Africa’s economies will therefore not suffice to prevent these movements.
On the one hand, a long-term approach to institutional strength and political stability is required to eliminate trafficking activities. On the other hand, policies should focus on creating decent long-term jobs both in rural and urban areas. They should provide specific groups such as youth with employment opportunities and make Africa’s development more inclusive. This binary approach takes away both the causes and organized exploitation of migration. This approach is not only less expensive than investing in strengthened European border controls. It is also a more humanitarian response to the reason why many Africans feel the need to leave their homelands.
Photo credit main picture: UNHCR Photo Unit (via Flickr)