Markus Loewe is research team leader at the German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), Bonn, where he has been working since 1999. He studied economics, political science and Arabic in Tübingen, Erlangen and Damascus and got his PhD from the University of Heidelberg for a thesis on micro-insurance schemes. His main areas of interest are social protection, poverty reduction / MDGs and investment promotion in developing countries. In addition, he has also published on demographic development, pro-poor growth, anti-corruption policies, economic governance, private sector development and the impact of the recent global financial and economic crisis. His most recent publications include The entrepreneur makes a difference: Evidence on MSE upgrading factors from Egypt, India and the Philippines; Pension Schemes and Pension Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa; and Caring for the urban middle class: the political economy of social protection in Arab countries.